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linguisticsweb:glossary:linguistics_glossary:wordformation [2014/02/02 23:02]
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linguisticsweb:glossary:linguistics_glossary:wordformation [2014/02/02 23:05] (current)
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-| | Word-Formation Process | Basic Rule / Structure | Examples | +| | **Word-Formation Process** **Basic Rule / Structure** **Examples** 
-| Primary word-formation,​ i.e. the coining of new words not based on existing material | word-manufacture / root creation | formation of a new word without morphological,​ phonological,​ orthographical motivation | //hoover//, //quark// (from James Joyce'​s Finnegans Wake ) | +| Primary word-formation,​ i.e. the coining of new words not based on existing material | **word-manufacture / root creation** | formation of a new word without morphological,​ phonological,​ orthographical motivation | //hoover//, //quark// (from James Joyce'​s Finnegans Wake ) | 
-| | onomatopoeia | words that reflect / imitate sounds | //swoosh//, //boing//, //​gobbledegook//​ | +| | **onomatopoeia** | words that reflect / imitate sounds | //swoosh//, //boing//, //​gobbledegook//​ | 
-| Secondary word-formation,​ i.e. from already existing morphemes of the language | compounding | 2 or more potentially free morphemes / roots are combined to form a new lexical unit. Semantic classification for compound nouns (relation head to cpd.): (1) endocentric compounds; (2) exocentric / bahuvrihi compounds; (3) appositional compounds; (4) copulative / dvandva compounds | (1) //​houseboat//​ – endocentric compound; (2) //​paleface//​ (person) - exocentric / bahuvrihi compound; (3) //​girlfriend//​ - //the girl is a friend, the friend is a girl//) - appositional cpd.; (4) //​Rank-Hovis//,​ //​prince-consort//​ (//prince and consort at the same time//)- copulative / dvandva compound | +| Secondary word-formation,​ i.e. from already existing morphemes of the language | **compounding** | 2 or more potentially free morphemes / roots are combined to form a new lexical unit. Semantic classification for compound nouns (relation head to cpd.): (1) endocentric compounds; (2) exocentric / bahuvrihi compounds; (3) appositional compounds; (4) copulative / dvandva compounds | (1) //​houseboat//​ – endocentric compound; (2) //​paleface//​ (person) - exocentric / bahuvrihi compound; (3) //​girlfriend//​ - //the girl is a friend, the friend is a girl//) - appositional cpd.; (4) //​Rank-Hovis//,​ //​prince-consort//​ (//prince and consort at the same time//)- copulative / dvandva compound | 
-| | neo-classical combining / compounding | at least one initial / final combining form ( ICF / FCF) (morphemes of Greek or Latinate origin) is combined with a free morpheme or another neo-classical combining form into a new lexical unit; //-o-// is often inserted to make a free English lexeme compatible with the Latinate or Greek combining form | //biology, television, bio-science,​ jazzophile//​ | +| | **neo-classical combining / compounding** | at least one initial / final combining form ( ICF / FCF) (morphemes of Greek or Latinate origin) is combined with a free morpheme or another neo-classical combining form into a new lexical unit; //-o-// is often inserted to make a free English lexeme compatible with the Latinate or Greek combining form | //biology, television, bio-science,​ jazzophile//​ | 
-| | affixation: prefixation | a prefix (bound morpheme) is added to the beginning of a free morpheme / word to form a new lexical unit | //unkind, remake// - class-maintaining;​ //befriend, ablaze, encage// - class-changing | +| | **affixation: prefixation** | a prefix (bound morpheme) is added to the beginning of a free morpheme / word to form a new lexical unit | //unkind, remake// - class-maintaining;​ //befriend, ablaze, encage// - class-changing | 
-| | suffixation | a suffix (bound morpheme) is added to the end of a free morpheme / word to form a new lexical unit | //national, friendship, brotherhood//​ |  +| | **suffixation** | a suffix (bound morpheme) is added to the end of a free morpheme / word to form a new lexical unit | //national, friendship, brotherhood//​ |  
-| | back-formation | a (diachronic) process where what appears to be a suffix is removed from a lexeme to form a new lexical item, usu. belonging to a different word-class. "​Back-formation is the formation of a new lexeme by the deletion of a suffix, or supposed suffix, from an apparently complex form by analogy with other instances where the suffixed and non-suffixed forms are both lexemes."​ Bauer, 1983: 64. | //to lase// from //laser// (the device laser must have existed before a verb for the activity carried out by means of the device was formed), //lech// from //lecher// in analogy to //love : lover// | +| | **back-formation** | a (diachronic) process where what appears to be a suffix is removed from a lexeme to form a new lexical item, usu. belonging to a different word-class. "​Back-formation is the formation of a new lexeme by the deletion of a suffix, or supposed suffix, from an apparently complex form by analogy with other instances where the suffixed and non-suffixed forms are both lexemes."​ Bauer, 1983: 64. | //to lase// from //laser// (the device laser must have existed before a verb for the activity carried out by means of the device was formed), //lech// from //lecher// in analogy to //love : lover// | 
-| | conversion | "(…) the change of form class of a form without any corresponding change of form." Bauer, 1983: 32. | //down// (adverb: //calm down//, adj.: //he was really down (= depressed) after meeting//; prep.: //he ran down the street//, verb: //he downed the beer//, noun: //he's had his ups and downs//, //the teacher has a down on him//) | +| | **conversion** | "(…) the change of form class of a form without any corresponding change of form." Bauer, 1983: 32. | //down// (adverb: //calm down//, adj.: //he was really down (= depressed) after meeting//; prep.: //he ran down the street//, verb: //he downed the beer//, noun: //he's had his ups and downs//, //the teacher has a down on him//) | 
-| | clipping | "(…) process whereby a lexeme (simplex or complex) is shortened, while still retaining the same meaning and still being a member of the same form class."​ ibid.: 233 which part of the lexeme is shortened is unpredictable | back-clipping - //mag// from //​magazine//;​ foreclipping - //loid// from //​celluloid//,​ //bus// from //​omnibus//;​ fore- and back-clipping - //flu// from //​influenza//​ | +| | **clipping** | "(…) process whereby a lexeme (simplex or complex) is shortened, while still retaining the same meaning and still being a member of the same form class."​ ibid.: 233 which part of the lexeme is shortened is unpredictable | **back-clipping** - //mag// from //​magazine//; ​**foreclipping** - //loid// from //​celluloid//,​ //bus// from //​omnibus//; ​**fore- and back-clipping** - //flu// from //​influenza//​ | 
-| | blending | "(…) a new lexeme formed from parts of two (or possibly more) other words in such a way there is no transparent analysis into morphs."​ ibid.: 234 | //motel// from //​motorist'​s hotel//, //shoat// from //sheep and goat//, //ballute// from //balloon and parachute// | +| | **blending** | "(…) a new lexeme formed from parts of two (or possibly more) other words in such a way there is no transparent analysis into morphs."​ ibid.: 234 | //motel// from //​motorist'​s hotel//, //shoat// from //sheep and goat//, //ballute// from //balloon and parachute// | 
-| | acronymics | "(…) a word coined by taking the initial letters of the words in a title or phrase and using them as a new word." ibid.: 237. The term acronym is used only when the sequence of letters can be pronounced as one word. | //NATO, laser, Wasp// (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) | +| | **acronymics** | "(…) a word coined by taking the initial letters of the words in a title or phrase and using them as a new word." ibid.: 237. The term acronym is used only when the sequence of letters can be pronounced as one word. | //NATO, laser, Wasp// (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) | 
-| | alphabetisation | see acronym: but the letters are pronounced individually,​ not as a word. | //USA, USSR, REM, VIP// |+| | **alphabetisation** | see acronym: but the letters are pronounced individually,​ not as a word. | //USA, USSR, REM, VIP// |